Exemplar lessons use concrete materials that the students manipulate to come up with observations. The investigation can be but doesn’t have to be initiated with a question. Investigations can be very formulaic with instructions or can be pretty open-ended with a question and the students have to fill in the steps along the way of how they would answer the question. Always an investigation centers around the students interacting with the material and making observations about the interactions. Their observations will leads to their own conclusions and understandings of the concept. Exemplar lessons always include items teachers can use right away: teachers guides, student journals, question prompts, teacher print outs and more give teachers the tools to allow students the experience to experience instruction in a non-formulaic way.